This text presents a reader-friendly introduction to the basic principles of experimental psychological research. Experimental Methodology is organized so that each chapter focuses on a specific step in the research process. This text provides an instruction in the experimental research and an introduction to non-experimental approaches such as ex-post facto research, correlational research, and survey research.
Each chapter begins with "Visual Overview" and "Introduction" and concludes with "Summary," and "Key Terms and Concepts," and a "Practice Test." Preface. 1. What Is Science? Methods of Acquiring Knowledge. Science. Advantage of the Scientific Method. Characteristics of the Scientific Approach. Objectives of Science. Basic Assumption Underlying Science. Method versus Technique. The Role of Theory in Science. The Role of the Scientist in Science. 2. Nonexperimental Research Approaches. Nonexperimental Quantitative Research. Qualitative Research. 3. The Experimental Research Approach. Causation. The Psychological Experiment. Experimental Research Settings. 4. Problem Identification and Hypothesis Formation. Sources of Research Ideas. Gender Bias in Research Ideas. Ideas Not Capable of Scientific Investigation. Review of the Literature. Feasibility of the Study. Formulating the Research Problem. Formulating Hypotheses. 5. Ethics. Research Ethics: What Are They? Ethical Dilemmas. Development of the APA Code of Ethics. Ethical Principles. Issues Raised by the Code of Ethics. Ethics of Animal Research. 6. Variables Used in Experimentation. Types of Variables. The Independent Variable. The Dependent Variable. 7. Validity in Experimental Research Control of Extraneous Variables. Extraneous Variables to Be Controlled. Research Participant and Experimenter Effects to Be Controlled. Sequencing Effect to Be Controlled. Additional Extraneous Variables to Be Held Constant. Population Validity. Ecological Validity. Temporal Validity. Relationship Between Internal and External Validity. Cautions in Evaluating the External Validity of Experiments. 8. Techniques for Achieving Constancy. Randomization. Matching. Counterbalancing. Control of Participant Effects. Control of Experimenter Effects. Likelihood of Achieving Control. 9. Experimental Research Design. Faulty Research Design. Requirements of True Research Designs. Pretesting Subjects. True Research Designs. Choice of a Research Design. 10. Quasi-Experimental Designs. Nonequivalent Control Group Design. Time-Series Design. 11. Single-Case Research Designs. Single-Case Designs. A-B-A Design. Interaction Design. Multiple-Baseline Design. Changing-Criterion Design. Methodological Considerations in Using Single-Case Designs. Criteria for Evaluating Change. Rival Hypotheses. 12. Data Collection. Research Participants. Sample Size. Apparatus. Instructions. Scheduling of Research Participants. Procedure. Institutional Approval. Data Collection. Consent to Participate. Debriefing, or Postexperimental Interview. 13. Hypothesis Testing. Testing the Hypothesis. The Mean. Standard Deviation. Selection of a Statistical Test. Independent Sample t-Test. Significance Level. Analysis of Variance. Potential Errors in the Statistical Decision-Making Process. 14. The Research Report. The APA Format. Preparation of the Research Report. Appendixes. Reference. Index.