This book highlights novel and pragmatic health promotion efforts being adopted with boys and young men of colour (BYMOC) globally that apply a strengths-based approach. Men's adoption of risky health practices and reluctance to seek help and engage in preventive health behaviours have frequently been used to explain their poorer health outcomes, particularly among adolescent boys and young men, and disproportionately affecting BYMOC. Emerging literature on equity and men's health has conveyed that intersections among age, race, sexuality, socioeconomic status and geography contribute to a complex array of health and social inequities. There is growing evidence to suggest these inequities shape the health practices of BYMOC. Unfortunately, these health and social inequities can have negative lifelong consequences. An increased focus on reducing health inequities has led to a greater focus on health promotion actions that address social and cultural determinants of health. The vulnerabilities that BYMOC face are diverse and are reflected in a range of tailored health promotion interventions. Health promotion approaches that influence structural and systemic inequities experienced by BYMOC have been a prominent feature. In this volume, the editors and contributors purposefully bring together international research and promising practice examples from Australia, the United States, New Zealand, and Canada to celebrate health promotion strategies that help to improve the health and social trajectories of BYMOC. In doing so, the book moves beyond discussing the health inequities faced by this population, to talk about the practical actions to address them in context. Health Promotion with Adolescent Boys and Young Men of Colour brings together diffuse strands of scholarship relating to male health promotion, gender/masculinities and health, equity and men's health, and gender and youth development. The book is a unique and useful resource for practitioners, policy-makers, researchers and students with an interest in health promotion/public health, social work/social policy, education, men's health, youth development, Indigenous studies, and health and social equity.
The following annotated Table of Contents reflects suggested book chapter authors and titles based on current knowledge and networks across the sector. It is indicative only. It is also based on preliminary discussions that occurred as part of Professor Smith's 2020 Fulbright Fellowship in the United States. To achieve the intended aim of the co-edited book we propose to divide its content into two parts. These relate to 'emerging research findings about the health and social needs of young men of colour' and 'cross-sectoral examples of promising health promotion practice with young men of colour'. Foreword Part 1 - Emerging research findings about the health and social needs of young men of colour This section of the book aims to introduce readers to contemporary research findings relating to the health and well-being of young men of colour. It includes multiple studies from across the world that have used a variety of different methodological approaches. This emerging global evidence-base has been, and continues to be, used to shape and implement innovative health promotion strategies that are culturally sensitive, age-appropriate and gender-sensitive to the needs of diverse groups of men of colour. Chapter 1 - Introduction Authors: James A. Smith, Daphne C. Watkins & Derek M. Griffith Summary: This chapter provides a broad overview of health promotion and young men of colour. It describes the aim and objectives of the book, explains the rationale for two sections (one relating to research; one relating to practice) and briefly outlines the focus of each of the subsequent chapters. Chapter 2 - What do we know about global health promotion efforts and adolescent boys and young men of colour? Authors: James A. Smith, Daphne C. Watkins & Derek M. Griffith Summary: This chapter is a scoping review of global scholarship relating to health promotion among young men of colour. It draws on academic and grey literature from health, education, justice, employment and housing contexts to discuss intersecting strands of evidence relating to health promotion; adolescent males and young men's health; youth health; equity and men's health (with a specific focus on race and health inequities); and gender/masculinities and health. Chapter 3 - Global research on masculine norms and men's health: Implications for the health and well-being of young men of colour Potential Authors: Gary Barker, Michael Flood, Cody Ragonese, Dean Peacock, Margate Greene, Che' Nembhard (TBC) Primary Affiliation: Promundo Summary: This chapter describe global research evidence examining the interface between masculine norms and men's health. It draws on recent research from the US, Australia, UK and Mexico about the challenges of being a young man in today's society. It specifically distils the unique health and social challenges that young men of colour face. Chapter 4 - Engaging young Black adolescent males and college men in discussion about mental health, manhood and social support using social media: Lessons from the YBMen project Authors: Daphne C. Watkins, Zachary Jackson & Lloyd Talley Primary Affiliation: School of Social Work Curtis Center of Health Equity Research and Training, University of Michigan Summary: This chapter draws on the empirical findings from the Young Black Men, Masculinities and Mental Health (YBMen) study to describe a culturally sensitive, age-appropriate and gender-specific program that uses social media (e.g., Facebook, Instagram, etc.) to provide mental health education and social support to young Black adolescent males and high school men by facilitating online discussions about mental health, manhood and social support using prompts from popular culture and current news headlines (YBMen). Chapter 5 - Using mobile technology to deliver HIV prevention to Native and Indigenous young men who have sex with men: Lessons from MyPEEPS Potential Authors: Cynthia Pearson et al Primary Affiliation: Indigenous Wellness Research Institute, University of Washington Summary: This chapter explores lessons learned during the design and implementation of the MyPEEPS health promotion intervention using mobile technology to deliver HIV prevention to at-risk racially and ethnically diverse young men (aged 13-18 years) who have sex with men (MSM). More specifically, this chapter describes lessons learned during the recruitment and tailoring of the MyPEEPS intervention for Native and Indigenous young men in Birmingham, Chicago, New York City, and Seattle. Chapter 6 - Valuing young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males: Implications for health promotion Potential Authors: Mick Adams, Jesse Fleay & Len Collard Primary Affiliation: Edith Cowan University Summary. This chapter draws on interviews with a diverse range of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health professionals and stakeholders from Western Australia and Queensland, Australia to discuss the importance of valuing young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males as a way to promote and strengthen their health and well-being (Valuing young Aboriginal males). Strategies for change, including implications for the delivery of culturally responsive and age-appropriate health promotion practice, are discussed. Chapter 7 - Conceptualising health and well-being from the perspective of young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males: A blueprint for health promotion action Authors: Jason Bonson, James A. Smith, Mick Adams, Ben Christie, Anthony Merlino, Murray Drummond, Richard Osborne, Barry Judd, Jesse Fleay & David Aanundsen Primary Affiliation: Menzies School of Health Research Summary: This chapter draws on the empirical findings from a study about conceptualisations of health and well-being among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander males in the Northern Territory, Australia (Health Literacy Project). It draws on content from yarning sessions with, and Facebook posts of, these young males to demonstrate that their narratives provide a compelling blueprint for health promotion action. Chapter 8 - Land-based learning spaces and young Indigenous men, masculinities and health in Canada Potential Authors: Kim Anderson & Rob Innes Primary Affiliation: University of Guelph Summary: This chapter draws on community-based qualitative research that explores the utility of land-based learning spaces within the context of the lives of young Indigenous males. More specifically, this chapter unpacks the intersections between urban Indigenous masculinities, health, and the identity of young Indigenous men at a university in Canada. Chapter 9 - Understanding the needs and priorities of young Indigenous fathers: Implications for health promotion Potential Authors: Kootsy Canuto and Elizabeth Adamson Primary Affiliation: South Australian Health & Medical Research Institute Summary: This chapter synthesises global research evidence relating to the health and social support needs of young Indigenous fathers. Implications for contemporary health promotion policy and practice are discussed. Chapter 10 - Understanding the health and well-being needs of young Pacific Islander males Potential Authors: Vili Nosa & Malakai 'Ofanoa Primary Affiliation: University of Auckland Summary: This chapter synthesises scholarship relating to the health and well-being needs of young Pacific Islander males. Opportunities for health promotion strategy development are discussed. Chapter 11 - Understanding the health and well-being needs of young Maori males Authors: TBC Primary Affiliation: TBC Summary: TBC Chapter 12 - Higher education aspirations and achievement among young Indigenous males in Australia: A critical social and cultural determinant of health and well-being Authors: Jesse Fleay, Anthony Merlino, Garth Stahl, Bep Uink, Lester Irabinna-Rigney, Peter Radoll, Braden Hill, Steven Larkin, Andrew Harvey, Rebecca Bennett, Himanshu Gupta & James A. Smith Primary Affiliation: Edith Cowan University/Menzies School of Health Research Summary: This chapter draws on an analysis of video interview data with young Indigenous males from across fives states and territories of Australia to discuss higher education aspirations and achievement as a critical social and cultural determinant of health and well-being. Strategies for reducing the health and social inequities they face in striving for improved health and education trajectories are discussed. Chapter 13 - Culture and resilience among young Alaskan Native males: Lessons from intergenerational dialogue exchange and action Potential Authors: Lisa Wexler et al Primary Affiliation: University of Michigan Summary: This chapter draws on research with Alaskan Native youth using an intergenerational dialogue exchange and action (IDEA) approach. Dialogue involving young Alaskan Native males has been used to demonstrate how a strong sense of cultural identity supports the development of resilience. Part 2 - Cross-sectoral examples of promising health promotion practice with young men of colour This section introduces readers to promising programs and services specifically designed to improve the health and social outcomes of a diverse range of young men of colour. It has a pragmatic and practical orientation that aims to shift the discussion from 'what we know' to 'what we can do'. The intent is to raise awareness of, and share lessons associated with, the planning and implementation of different health promotion strategies aimed at reducing health and social inequities faced by this population. A broad social determinants of health approach has been adopted, which means that examples presented include a cross section of health promotion investments in health, education, employment, housing and justice sectors. Chapter 14 - My Brother's Keeper: A case study from a national approach to improving opportunities for young men of colour Potential Authors: Jamall Bufford Primary Affiliation: Washtenaw Intermediate School District Summary: This chapter describes the origins, framework and impacts of the My Brother's Keeper (MBK) initiative in the US. MBK was established to address persistent opportunity gaps and social inequities rooted in structural and institutional racism that prevent young men of colour from reaching their full potential. The MBK Alliance, hosted by the Obama Foundation, leads a cross-sector national call to action focused on building safe and supportive communities for boys and young men of colour where they feel valued and have clear pathways to opportunity. MBK encourages local communities to develop and execute rigorous action plans that help to close education and labour force gaps for young men of colour. This chapter reports on a media project - Formula 74 - undertaken by the Washtenaw My Brother's Keeper, which involved using restorative justice principles to discuss what it is like to navigate being a young man of colour in Washtenaw County. The project involved producing an album of songs and documentary on this topic. Chapter 15 - Beats, Rhymes and Life: Advancing the social, educational and economic advancement of young Black males Authors: Rob Jackson Primary Affiliation: Beats Rhymes and Life Inc Summary: This chapter describes a Hip Hop program and an academy for Transitional Aged Youth (TAY) implemented by Beats Rhymes and Life - a not-for-profit organisation located in Oakland, California. Beats Rhymes and Life exists to reduce stigma and increase access for youth of color and other marginalized youth (particularly boys and young men of colour), seeking therapeutic services. There is a general distrust of systems of care because of the lack of diversity and the lack of culturally-congruent, strength-based and youth-centered service delivery models. Impacts and outcomes of this program are discussed. Chapter 16 - Michael Long Learning and Leadership Centre: Promoting education and employment pathways for young Aboriginal males Potential Authors: Rychelle Vines et al Summary: This chapter describes the establishment of the Michael Long Learning Leadership Centre (MLLLC) and two of the major programs it delivers. Using football as a vehicle, MLLLC's Make Your Mark and Employment Pathways programs focus on improving school attendance and engagement, student behaviour, completion of secondary education and work readiness (MLLLC Programs). The Make Your Mark Leadership program is targeted to students aged 10 -13 years and encompasses a 15-week community-based leadership program and a one-week residential program at the MLLLC. The program includes Australian Football League (AFL) themed literacy and numeracy lessons, team-building activities, healthy lifestyle education, sport, training and mentoring sessions visits to local boarding schools. The Employment Pathways program is for students aged 14- 17 years and provides students with an awareness of a diverse range of jobs available to them and the pathways to achieving them. Students visit a range of local employment and training centres, they prepare for and engage in a work experience session at AFLNT. Both programs are targeted towards young Aboriginal males, but also include young Aboriginal females where and when appropriate to do so. Chapter 17 - The DUDES Club: Indigenous men's wellness promotion on British Columbia, Canada Potential Authors: Paul Gross, Sandy Lambert, Frank Cohn, Teka Everstz et al Summary: This chapter describes the implementation and evaluation of DUDES Clubs across British Columbia, Canada (DUDES Club). DUDES Clubs are a model of Indigenous men's wellness promotion that builds solidarity and brotherhood, enabling men to regain a sense of pride and purpose on their life. This is achieved through the facilitation of participant-led community for men's wellness with activity-based clubs that prioritise supportive relationships, engagement in health care, and local Indigenous worldviews. Recent evaluation findings have established that participants derive benefits in relation to mental, physical, emotional and spiritual health. Within DUDES Clubs the hierarchy of the Western medical model is flattened, and the healthcare providers who are involved prioritise cultural competence and safety, genuine connections, and support to help men navigate the healthcare system. While DUDES Clubs are open to men of any age, intergenerational exchange and learning is strongly encouraged to help support the health and well-being of young Indigenous males. Chapter 18 - Making Connections: Lessons learned from the evaluation of place-based mental health initiatives involving boys and young men of colour across the US Potential Authors: Roxann McNeish, Ruban Cantu, Wil Crary, Susan Gay Primary Affiliations: University of South Florida, Prevention Institute, and Southern Plains Tribal Health board Summary: This chapter draws on the evaluation findings from Making Connections - a national mental health program in the US funded by the Movember Foundation. It includes implementation case studies involving American Indian boys and adolescents through school-based activities in Oklahoma; and Micronesian and Phillipino adolescent boys and young men involved in community-based activities in Honolulu, Hawaii. Chapter 19 - Forward Promise: Building a culture of health to empower young men of colour to heal, grow and thrive Potential Authors: Howard Stevenson Primary Affiliation: Forward Promise Summary: This chapter describes the advent and outcomes of Forward Promise, a national program in the US that aims to promote the health of boys and young men of colour; and counter the historical and contemporary trauma they may have experienced. It seeks to create a culture of health that builds and strengthens the villages that raise and empower boys and young men of colour to heal, grow and thrive. Chapter 20 - Campaign for Black Male Achievement: An eco-systems approach for promoting the health, well-being and healing of boys and young men of colour Potential Authors: Phyllis Hubbard, Shawn Dove Primary Affiliation: Campaign for Black Male Achievement Summary: This chapter describes the approach adopted by the Campaign for Black Male Achievement (CBMA) - a national membership network seeking to ensure the growth, sustainability, and impact of leaders and organizations committed to improving the life outcomes of Black men and boys. This includes reflections on the ecosystem approach adopted in relation to health and healing strategies and efforts to inform narrative change relating to boys and young men of colour. Chapter 21 - Addressing the needs of Black and Latino adolescent boys and young men in Boston, United States Authors: Albert Pless and/or David Bell Primary Affiliation: Cambridge Health Alliance and Young Men's Clinic - Columbia University Summary: This chapter reflects on health promotion activities planned and implemented by the Cambridge Health Alliance, and the Young Men's Clinic at Columbia University, with Black and Latino adolescent boys and young men in Boston. It discusses how systems thinking approaches and attention to culturally-responsive, gender-sensitive and age-appropriate engagement strategies have been used to better service this vulnerable population. Chapter 22 - National Compadres Network: Supporting the health and healing of boys and young men of colour through La Cultura Cura Authors: Jerry Tello & Hector Sanchez-Flores Primary Affiliation: National Compadres Network Summary: This chapter describes work undertaken by the National Compadres Network across the United States to support boys and young men of colour, particularly Native American and Latinx, through the delivery of programs and curricula associated with the philosophy of La Cultura Cura (transformational health and healing). It also discusses key learnings from the establishment and implementation of its National Boys and Men of Color Institute - a multi-tiered, national effort focused on working with communities to pull themselves up by their "rootstraps" by engaging elders, leading experts, systems leaders and community-based agencies that have a vested interest in improving the lives of boys and men of color. Chapter 23 - Urban Arts Academy: Promoting entrepreneurship among young Hispanic males Potential Author: Angela Reyes Primary Affiliation: Detroit Hispanic Development Corporation Summary: This chapter describes the Urban Arts Academy prevention program delivered by the Detroit Hispanic Development Corporation. The Urban Arts Academy caters to both male and female Hispanic youth aged 11-19 years. It uses youth development and entrepreneurship principles to support them to pursue their own for-profit ventures such as: t-shirt production, graffiti art, music and video production. Youth create art through this interactive program incorporating music and video to tell their stories. Chapter 24 - Conclusion: Future directions in global health promotion with young men of colour Authors: James A. Smith, Daphne C. Watkins & Derek M. Griffith Summary: This chapter brings together the research and practice narratives included throughout the book to provide an overview of current and future directions in global health promotion efforts aimed at reducing health and social inequities among young men of colour. Glossary of Terms
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