The orbitofrontal cortex comprises the ventral surface of the frontal lobe, and is critical for functions ranging from olfaction and emotion to learning and behavioral flexibility. Since the time of Phineas Gage, this enigmatic brain region has intrigued clinicians due to its association with personality. Recent research has started to unmask the specific operational principles of the area. Simultaneously, advances in the clinical neurosciences increasingly implicate the orbitofrontal cortex and adjacent ventral frontal regions in a variety of psychiatric and neurological conditions including anxiety, mood and addictive disorders, as well as frontotemporal dementia. This volume provides the first comprehensive review of the orbitofrontal cortex, and should be a standard reference for established clinicians and researchers as well as trainees in neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry, psychology, and neuroscience. The book starts with a review of the structure of the ventral frontal lobes in human and nonhuman primates and the current state of knowledge regarding the region's neurocircuitry. This is followed by a series of chapters addressing the precise functions of the orbitofrontal cortex, with coverage spanning animal and human research. The book continues with chapters detailing methodological issues in neuroimaging and neuropsychological assessment of the region, and concludes with reviews of the area's contribution to psychiatric and neurological conditions. With chapters throughout by leading experts, and a foreword from Marsel Mesulam, the volume provides both a basic foundation that will be useful to students, and critical reviews that capture the sophisticated nuances, controversies, and emerging concepts in the field.
PART 1: ANATOMY; 1. Architectonic structure of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex; 2. The orbitofrontal cortex: sulcal and gyral morphology and architecture; 3. Connections of the orbital cortex; 4. Sequential and parallel circuits for emotional processing in primate orbitofrontal cortex; PART 2: FUNCTIONS AND METHODS; 5. The neurophysiology and functions of the orbitofrontal cortex; 6. The chemical senses; 7. Involvement of primate orbitofrontal neurons in reward, uncertainty and learning; 8. From associations to expectancies: orbitofrontal cortex as gateway between the limbic system and representational memory; 9. A componential analysis of the functions of primate orbitofrontal cortex; 10. The role of human orbitofrontal cortex in reward prediction and behavioural choice: insights from neuroimaging; 11. Memory processes and the orbitofrontal cortex; 12. The role of lateral orbitofrontal cortex in the inhibitory control of emotion; 13. Visceral and decision-making functions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex; 14. Intracranial electrophysiology of the human orbitofrontal cortex; 15. Orbitofrontal cortex activation during functional neuroimaging studies of emotion induction in humans; 16. Neurochemical modulation of orbitofrontal cortex function; 17. Technical considerations foro BOLD fMRI of the orbitofrontal cortex; PART 3: NEUROPSYCHIATRY; 18. Neuropsychological assessment of the orbitofrontal cortex; 19. The orbitofrontal cortex in drug addiction; 20. The orbitofrontal cortex and anxiety disorders; 21. The ventral prefrontal cortex in mood disorders; 22. Effect of orbitofrontal lesions on mood and aggression; 23. Pseudopsychopathy: a perspective from cognitive neuroscience; 24. Frontotemporal dementia and the orbitofrontal cortex