A thorough, user-friendly guide of basic knowledge and group interventions for psychological trauma from terrorist attacks and other catastrophic disasters There is relatively little literature on the psychological trauma caused by catastrophic disasters, including terrorist attacks and the impending threats of terrorism. Psychological Effects of Catastrophic Disasters: Group Approaches to Treatment fills that gap by comprehensively discussing ways to minimize the psychological damage resulting from catastrophic disasters as well as the trauma developed from the threat of future terrorist attacks. The book provides thorough presentations of almost manualized group methods for the prevention and treatment of the acute and longer-term psychological effects for children, adolescents, and adults. Appropriate treatment immediately after a catastrophe can diminish harmful psychological effects, enhance an individual's quality of life, decrease psychosomatic illnesses and the exacerbation of chronic medical conditions, increase the effective utilization of medical facilities, and decrease medical expenses. In this book, internationally renowned authorities provide practical expert suggestions and helpful examples to illustrate the interventions and provide a quick reference for professionals facing the aftermath of prospective terrorist disasters and other catastrophic events. Psychological Effects of Catastrophic Disasters: Group Approaches to Treatment is divided into four sections. The first section provides an overview of the book; the second discusses the foundations and broad issues which potentially affect the outcome of group treatment; the third section presents group models which address the particular needs of children, adolescents, parents, emergency service personnel, and mental health practitioners; and the fourth part considers future directions of treatment. Designed to be used as a comprehensive single source for professionals working with victims of trauma caused by terrorism or catastrophic disaster, this book can be read and used in its entirety, or specific chapters detailing treatments can be chosen and used independently as needed. Extensive references allow opportunities for further research. Psychological Effects of Catastrophic Disasters: Group Approaches to Treatment presents unique first-person accounts of September 11th and examines: the neurobiological effects of a traumatic disaster the effective use of psychotropic medication the implications of living with ongoing terrorist threats a new framework for preparedness and response to disasters and trauma for children and families cultural, religious, and ethnic differences related to the prevention and treatment of psychological sequelae the diagnosis and treatment of traumatic grief retraumatization, distressing reminders, and their effects on post-traumatic adjustment the knowledge trauma therapists need to integrate small group principles the diagnosis and group treatment of acute and long-term effects with adults and children the use of spiritual principles after a terrorist disaster or catastrophic event nine types of groups appropriate for specific populations Psychological Effects of Catastrophic Disasters: Group Approaches to Treatment is a timely, comprehensive reference for social workers, psychologists, psychiatrists, health professionals, mental health professionals, educators, and students. The royalties from this book shall be donated to organizations which provide direct services to those who continue to be affected by the events of September 11th, 2001 and Hurricane Katrina (August 29th, 2005).
About the Editors Contributors Preface Acknowledgments PART I: OVERVIEW Chapter 1. Trauma, Terror, and Fear: Mental Health Professionals Respond to the Impact of 9/11 An Overview (Terence M. Keane and Linda A. Piwowarczyk) Conceptual Models Levels of Intervention Controversies On-Site Roles for Mental Health Providers Clinician Self-Care Chapter Content Summary PART II: FOUNDATIONS Chapter 2. Images of Trauma: The Aftermath of Terrorism and Disasters (Henry I. Spitz and Rebecca E. Spitz) Introduction Case Illustrations Summary Chapter 3. Mental Health Issues and Implications of Living Under Ongoing Terrorist Threats (Sara A. Freedman and Rivka Tuval-Mashiach) Introduction Historical Perspective Ongoing Terrorist Threats: What Is the Difference? Ongoing Terrorist Threats: Current Research on the Israeli Experience Mental Health Issues Treatment Implications Treatment During Ongoing Terrorist Threats Conclusions Chapter 4. Neurobiology of Trauma (Craig L. Katz and Rachel Yehuda) Introduction Impact of the Traumatic Event on Mind and Brain Role of the Mental Health Professional During the Recoil Phase A Neuroendocrine Perspective on the Posttraumatic Period A Neuroanatomical Perspective on the Posttraumatic Period Conclusion Chapter 5. Children and Families: A New Framework for Preparedness and Response to Danger, Terrorism, and Trauma (Robert S. Pynoos, Alan M. Steinberg, Merritt D. Schreiber, and Melissa J. Brymer) Introduction The National Child Traumatic Stress Network Selected Literature Review on Children and Terrorism Unique Challenges Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction The Ecology of Terrorism and Danger The Ecology of Response Public Mental Health Strategies Research Issues for Children and Families in the Aftermath of Weapons of Mass Destruction Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research After Terrorism Chapter 6. Traumatic Reactions to Terrorism: The Individual and Collective Experience (K. Chase Stovall-McClough and Marylene Cloitre) Introduction Trauma and Attachment Theory The Nature and Impact of Traumatic Events Assessment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Terrorism and Mental Health: Research Findings Traumatic Reactions to Terrorism: Special Considerations Conclusions and Implications for Recovery Chapter 7. Clinical Issues in the Psychopharmacology of PTSD (Steven B. Rudin, Serena Y. Volpp, and Randall D. Marshall) Introduction Rationale for Pharmacotherapy Clinical Issues Related to Pharmacotherapy of PTSD Overview of the Literature on Pharmacotherapy Classes of Medication: Antidepressants Classes of Medication: Sedatives/Hypnotics Classes of Medication: Mood Stabilizers Classes of Medication: Antipsychotics Classes of Medication: Autonomic Nervous System Modulators Alternative Medications Summary Appendix: Index of Medications Chapter 8. Respecting Cultural, Religious, and Ethnic Differences in the Prevention and Treatment of Psychological Sequelae (Yael Danieli and Kathleen Nader) Introduction Learning About a Culture Identifying the Components of Culture Cultural Issues and Reactions to Trauma and Treatment Conclusions Chapter 9. Contextual Influences on Posttraumatic Adjustment: Retraumatization and the Roles of Revictimization, Posttraumatic Adversities, and Distressing Reminders (Christop