Research Methods

A Process of Inquiry

  • Anthony M. Graziano, Michael L. Raulin
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Explores the entire range of research methodologies in psychology. This comprehensive text uses a carefully constructed programmatic approach to introduce topics and systematically build on earlier presentations. Research Methods emphasizes research concepts, as well as specific, technical research strategies, to help students develop an understanding of the underlying rational-empirical processes of science and gain specific research skills. The authors provide clearly written explanations of concepts and numerous examples drawn from all areas of psychology to enable students to develop a sophisticated understanding of the research process. The 8th edition includes an extensive integrated Web site ( with a variety of resources for students. Learning Goals Upon completing this book readers will be able to: * Understand the concepts of research design* Develop research skills based on a knowledge of appropriate research design* Develop a sensitivity to ethical issues in research and the skills necessary to address these issues* Understand basic statistical concepts Note: MySearchLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MySearchLab, please visit: or you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MySearchLab (at no additional cost): ValuePack ISBN-10: 0205900925 / ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205900923.
Found in this Section: 1. Brief Table of Contents 2. Full Table of Contents 1. BRIEF TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1 Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment Chapter 2 Research is a Process of Inquiry Chapter 3 The Starting Point: Asking Questions Chapter 4 Data and the Nature of Measurement Chapter 5 Statistical Analysis of Data Chapter 6 Field Research: Naturalistic and Case Study Research Chapter 7 Correlational and Differential Methods of Research Chapter 8 Hypothesis Testing, Validity, and Threats to Validity Chapter 9 Controls to Reduce Threats to Validity Chapter 10 Single-Variable, Independent-Groups Designs Chapter 11 Correlated-Groups and Single-Subject Designs Chapter 12 Factorial Designs Chapter 13 A Second Look at Field Research: Field Experiments, Program Evaluation, and Survey Research Appendix A Using the Student Resource Website Appendix B Writing a Research Report in APA Publication Style Appendix C Conducting Library Research Appendix D Selecting Statistical Procedures Appendix E Research Design Checklist Appendix F Meta-Analysis Appendix G Random Numbers Appendix H Answers to Quick-Check Review Questions Glossary References Name Index Subject Index 2. FULL TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1: Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment Classic Studies 1.1: Kitty Genovese and Bystander Apathy Science Science Is a Way of Thinking Asking Questions Historical Lesson 1.1: The Three Princes of Serendip Science and Art Historical Lesson 1.2: Leonardo da Vinci Acquiring Knowledge Tenacity Intuition Authority Rationalism Empiricism Science Emergence of Science Early Civilization Greek Science Medieval Science The Scientific Revolution The Goals of Science Psychology The History of Psychology Structuralism Functionalism Psychodynamics Gestalt Psychology Behaviorism Humanistic Psychology Cognitive Psychology Women and Minorities in Psychology Modern Psychology The Science of Psychology The Cost of Neglect 1.4: Science and Pseudoscience Ethical Principles Using the Resources of this Text Exploring the Student Resource Website Using SPSS for Windows Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 2: Research is a Process of Inquiry The Scientific Process Basic Assumptions of Science Observation and Inference: Facts and Constructs Inductive and Deductive Thinking Models and Theories in Science Historical Lesson 2.1: The Wright Brothers as Scientists Types of Theories Scientific Models A Model of the Research Process Phases of Research Idea-Generating Phase Problem-Definition Phase Procedures-Design Phase Observation Phase Data Analysis Phase Interpretation Phase Communication Phase Levels of Constraint Naturalistic Observation Case Study Research (Case Study Research) Correlational Research Differential Research Experimental Research Moving from One Constraint Level to Another Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 3: The Starting Point: Asking Questions Asking and Refining Questions Pursuing Your Personal Interests Following Up on the Work of Others Historical Lesson 3.1 Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace Basic, Applied, and Translational Research Box 3.1 Translational Research Refining Questions for Research Types of Variables in Research Classifying Variables Based on Their Characteristics Behavioral Variables Stimulus Variables Organismic Variables Classifying Variables Based on Their Use in Research Independent and Dependent Variables Extraneous Variables Variables and Constants Validity and the Control of Extraneous Variables Ethical Principles Ethical Principles for Human Research Institutional Review Boards Ethical Checks Ethics and Diversity Issues in Research Ethical Principles for Animal Research Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 4: Data and the Nature of Measurement Measurement The Cost of Neglect 4.1: Missing Mars Scales of Measurement Nominal Scales Ordinal Scales Interval Scales Ratio Scales Measuring and Manipulating Variables Measurement Error Operational Definitions Evaluating Measures Reliability Interrater Reliability Test-Retest Reliability Internal Consistency Reliability Effective Range Validity The Need for Objective Measurement Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 5: Statistical Analysis of Data Individual Differences Organizing Data Frequency Distributions Nominal and Ordinal Data Score Data Graphical Representation of Data Descriptive Statistics Measures of Central Tendency The Cost of Neglect 5.1: Lies, Damn Lies, and Statistics Measures of Variability Understanding the Concept 5.1: Degrees of Freedom Measures of Relationship Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Other Correlations Regression Reliability Indices Standard Scores Statistical Inference Populations and Samples The Null Hypothesis Statistical Decisions and Alpha Levels Type I and Type II Errors Inferential Statistics Testing for Mean Differences The t-Test Analysis of Variance The Power of a Statistical Test Effect Size Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 6: Field Research: Naturalistic and Case Study Research The Challenge of Low-Constraint Research Examples of Naturalistic Observation Biology Historical Lesson 6.1: Naturalistic Research and Evolution Ethology Sociology Psychology Examples of Case Study Research Sigmund Freud E. L. Whitmer Jean Piaget Contemporary Case Studies The Value of Low-Constraint Methods Conditions for Using Low-Constraint Research Exploratory Research Creative Starting Point for Research Familiarize Oneself with a New Research Area Demonstrating Feasibility Testing Generalizability Understanding the Concept 6.1: The Therapist as Scientist Information Gained from Low-Constraint Research Identifying New Information Negating a General Proposition Identifying Contingencies Qualitative Research Methods Using Low-Constraint Methods Problem Statements and Research Hypotheses Making Observations How to Observe Unobtrusive Measures Archival Measures Sampling of Participants Sampling of Situations Sampling of Behaviors Evaluating and Interpreting Data Limitations of Low-Constraint Methods Poor Representativeness Poor Replicability Causal Inference and Low-Constraint Research Limitations of the Observer Going Beyond the Data Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 7: Correlational and Differential Methods of Research Defining Correlational and Differential Research Correlational Research Methods Differential Research Methods Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Research Artifacts and Confounding Comparing These Methods When to Use These Methods Conducting Correlational Research Problem Statements Secondary Analyses Measuring the Variables Sampling Analyzing the Data Interpreting the Correlation Conducting Differential Research Problem Statements Measuring the Variables Selecting Appropriate Control Groups Sampling Analyzing the Data Interpreting the Data Limitations of Correlational and Differential Research Problems in Determining Causation Confounding Variables Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 8: Hypothesis Testing, Validity, and Threats to Validity Hypothesis Testing Starting Research with an Initial Idea Statement of the Problem Operational Definitions Research Hypothesis The Contribution of Theory to the Research Hypothesis Testing the Research Hypothesis Null Hypothesis Confounding Variable Hypothesis Causal Hypothesis Validity and Threats to Validity Statistical Validity Construct Validity External Validity Internal Validity Major Confounding Variables Maturation History Testing Instrumentation Regression to the Mean Selection Attrition Diffusion of Treatment Sequence Effects Examples of Confounding Subject and Experimenter Effects Subject Effects Experimenter Effects Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 9: Controls to Reduce Threats to Validity General Control Procedures Preparation of the Setting Response Measurement Replication Control over Subject and Experimenter Effects Single- and Double-Blind Procedures Automation Using Objective Measures Multiple Observers Understanding the Concept 9.1: Reliable Reliability Using Deception Control through Participant Selection and Assignment Participant Selection Random Sampling Stratified Random Sampling Ad Hoc Samples Participant Assignment Free Random Assignment Randomizing within Blocks Matched Random Assignment Other Matching Procedures Advantages of Random Selection and Assignment Control through Experimental Design Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 10: Single-Variable, Independent-Groups Designs Variance Sources of Variance Systematic Between-Groups Variance Nonsystematic Within-Groups Variance Controlling Variance in Research Maximizing Experimental Variance Controlling Extraneous Variance Minimizing Error Variance Nonexperimental Approaches Ex Post Facto Studies Single-Group, Posttest-Only Studies Single-Group, Pretest-Posttest Studies Pretest-Posttest, Natural Control-Group Studies Experimental Designs Randomized, Posttest-Only, Control-Group Design Randomized, Pretest-Posttest, Control-Group Design Multilevel, Completely Randomized, Between-Subjects Design Pretest-Manipulation Interaction: A Potential Problem Variations on Experimental Designs Analyses of Variance Understanding the Concept 10.1: Statistical Power Specific Means Comparisons in ANOVA Graphing the Data Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 11: Correlated-Groups and Single-Subject Designs Within-Subjects Designs Using Within-Subjects Designs Sequence Effects Subtypes of Sequence Effects Controlling Sequence Effects Random Order of Presentation Counterbalancing Analyzing Within-Subjects Designs Strengths and Weaknesses of Within-Subjects Designs Matched-Subjects Designs Using Matched-Subjects Designs Why Use Matched-Subjects Designs Identifying Matching Variables The Process of Matching Deciding on the Matching Variables Analyzing Matched-Subjects Designs Strengths and Weaknesses of Matched-Subjects Designs Single-Subject Experimental Designs Historical Lesson 11.1: Neuropsychological Cases ABA Reversal Design Multiple-Baseline Design Single-Subject, Randomized, Time-Series Design Replication in Single-Subject Designs Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 12: Factorial Designs Factorial Designs Main Effects and Interactions Running the Children,s Dark-Fears Study Possible Outcomes of Factorial Designs Analysis of Variance in Factorial Designs Variations of Basic Factorial Design Within-Subjects or Repeated-Measures Factorial Mixed Designs Between-Subjects and Within-Subjects Factors Manipulated and Nonmanipulated Factors Mixed in Both Ways ANOVA: A Postscript Analysis of Covariance Multivariate Analysis of Variance Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 13: A Second Look at Field Research: Field Experiments, Program Evaluation, and Survey Research Conducting Field Research Reasons for Doing Field Research Testing External Validity Studying Effects in the Field Improving Generalization Difficulties in Field Research Flexibility in Research Quasi-Experimental Designs Nonequivalent Control-Group Designs Interrupted Time-Series Designs Program Evaluation Research Historical Lesson 13.1: From Head Start to Heads Up Practical Problems in Program Evaluation Research Issues of Control Selecting Appropriate Dependent Measures Minimizing Bias in Dependent Measures Control through Research Design in Program Evaluation Typical Program Evaluation Designs Randomized Control-Group Design Nonequivalent Control-Group Design Single-Group, Time-Series Design Pretest-Posttest Design Program Evaluation Research: An Example Surveys Types of Surveys Status Surveys Survey Research Steps in Survey Research Types of Survey Instruments Developing the Survey Instrument Sampling Participants Sampling Considerations The Cost of Neglect 13.1: Political Polling and Sampling Sampling Procedures Sample Size and Confidence Intervals Survey Research Design Cross-Sectional Design Longitudinal Design Sequential Design Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises A final Note to Students Appendix A: Using the Student Resource Website Resources Available Student Resource Website MySearchLab Site What to Do If You Have Problems Getting Help Summary Appendix B: Writing a Research Report in APA Publication Style Structure of a Research Article Writing the Research Report Using Levels of Headings to Organize Sections of a Research Report Title Page Abstract Introduction Method Results Discussion References Writing Style Summary Appendix C: Conducting Library Research Using the Library Library Resources The Reference Librarian How Research Materials Are Organized Primary Sources Journal Articles Dissertations Secondary Sources Review Articles Books and Chapters in Books Annual Reviews Finding the Relevant Research Abstracting Services Psychological Abstracts ERIC Subject or Keyword Services Library Catalogs Books in Print Index Medicus Readers, Guide to Periodic Literature Literature Citation Indexes Search Strategies Searching by Topic Identifying Keywords Computer Searches Searching Backward Searching Forward Summary Appendix D: Selecting Statistical Procedures Selecting Appropriate Statistical Procedures An Initial Example A Decision-Tree Model Decision-Tree Flowchart Describe the Study Identify the Study,s Major Characteristics Select Appropriate Statistics Secondary Analyses Post Hoc Analyses Analyses to Help to Interpret Results Data Snooping Caveats and Disclaimers Understanding the Concept D.1: The Robust Nature of Parametric Statistics Summary Exercises Appendix E: Research Design Checklist The Research Design Checklist Initial Problem Definition Clarity of the Research Hypotheses Statistical Analysis Procedures Theoretical Basis and Operational Definitions Adequacy of the Independent Variable Manipulation Adequacy of Dependent Measures Are All Controls in Place? Participants Participant Selection Sample Size Participant Assignment Participant Availability Research Ethics Considerations Preparation of the Setting Space and Equipment Personnel Adequacy of Participant Preparation, Instruction, and Procedures Summary Appendix F: Meta-Analysis Logic of Meta-Analysis Literature Reviews Alpha Levels and Knowledge Beta Levels and Knowledge Meta-Analysis and the Problem of Type II Errors Appendix G: Random Numbers Appendix H: Answers to Quick-Check Review Questions Glossary References Name Index Subject Index
Uitgavejaar 2012
ISBN 9780205907694
Verschijningsdatum 18 jul. 2012
Omvang 432
Auteur(s) Anthony M. Graziano, Michael L. Raulin
Bindwijze Gebonden
Taal Engels
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